• Special Report
  • Communists on the rise in Nepal

    China is beginning to loom large even in Nepal, a nation not long ago firmly in India’s corner. Of course, a major share of the blame has to be borne by the mandarins in South Block. Their big brother attitude over a period of time has recoiled on India. The increasing marginalisation of the India-friendly forces and the rise of pro-China parties signals a sharp shift in Nepal’s polity.

    The huge success of the left alliance of the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist Leninist (CPN-UML) and the CPN-Marxist-Centre in the recent election underlines the waning influence of the pro-India elements. The middle-of-the-road Nepali Congress has been relegated to a poor third position and will have very little influence in determining the domestic and external policy of Nepal.

    Since the two left parties are committed to merge, it is clear that the united party would be demonstrably China-friendly, though, for the record, it may assert that it would follow a neutral stance between India and China. Given that the leftists in Nepal have furthered their political cause by openly bleating about the big brother attitude of India, and by accepting China as a friend and mentor, India would have to do some quick recalibrating of its approach in order to safeguard its strategic and security interests in the region.

    Locked between the two nuclear-powered neighbours, India and China, even if the new rulers of Nepal were to cast aside India, it would be well-nigh impossible for them to do so. So strong are the geographical, cultural, religious, social bonds that bind the two people together that it is inconceivable that India and Nepal can live in complete separation. The leader of the left alliance, K P Oli, of the CPN-UML, who is most likely to be the next prime minister, has left none in doubt about his pro-China preference.

    But even Oli cannot wish away the ties that bind Nepalis to India in multiple ways, including work, religion, culture, etc. The difficult terrain between Nepal and China further complicates closer people-to-people ties between the two countries, though China’s superior money and military clout is a factor for the policy-makers in Kathmandu. India does not have to compete with China in seeking influence in Nepal. South Block should learn to treat Nepal with respect and due dignity, unlike the times when the monarchy was ruling the roast in the land-locked State.

    The new rulers of Nepal will soon discover the true face of the Chinese dragon, which insists on extracting a high price for every penny invested and generally tends to arm-twist national governments in need of its financial help. The cash-rich Chinese are known to have put the backs of every nation up against them wherever they have invested their surplus millions.

    Even the educated elites of Pakistan are worried at the high and mighty ways of the Chinese, some suspecting the rise of another ‘East India Company’ via the huge investments in the much-vaunted road and port projects. The newly-elected communists in Nepal too are patriotic enough not to yield undue influence to the expansionist Chinese hegemon. India has nothing to worry but needs to be careful of the Nepali sensibilities and sensitivities.



  • President Donald Trump promises ‘giant tax cut’ as ‘Christmas gift’ to Americans

    Washington: US President Donald Trump today said the Congress has reached an agreement on tax legislation that will deliver more jobs, higher wages, and “massive tax relief” for American families and domestic companies.

    Trump recognised the tax reform as a campaign promise during his run-up to the 2016 presidential election, saying the “giant tax cut” will be his “Christmas gift” to fellow countrymen. “Now we’re just days away … from keeping that promise and delivering a truly amazing victory for American families. We want to give you, the American people, a giant tax cut for Christmas,” Trump told a select audience at the White House as he delivered an address to the nation making a final pitch for his massive tax reform.

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    “As we speak, Congress has reached an agreement on tax legislation that will deliver more jobs, higher wages, and massive tax relief for American families and for American companies,” he said. Trump cited an example to explain the impact of the tax cut: “The typical family of four earning USD 75,000 will see an income tax cut of more than USD 2,000, slashing their tax bill in half.”

    It nearly doubles the amount of income taxed at the rate of zero, he said, adding that the proposed tax reforms also closes special interest loopholes; and lowers tax rates for families. It cuts taxes on businesses, which is expected to raise income by an average of more than USD 4,000, he said. Trump said the current tax code is “burdensome, complex, and profoundly unfair.”

    “It has exported our jobs, closed our factories, and left millions of parents worried that their children might be the first generation to have less opportunity than the last. Our factories have left. So many of them, gone,” he said. “But they’re all coming back. And you see it, even before we do this, that they’re starting to come back. Our country is starting to do really well again, and as a country we’re being respected again,” asserted the US President.

    Trump told the nation that his administration will “never let bad things happen”, with respect to the economy of the country. “We’re not going to lose our businesses again like has happened over the last number of decades. America is coming back bigger, better, and stronger than ever before,” he said.

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    America, he said, isn’t content just by getting by. “America is about getting ahead, about finding the best in ourselves and in each other. We are reclaiming our destinies as Americans, a nation that thinks big, dreams bigger, and always reaches for the stars. We didn’t become great through massive taxation and Washington regulation,” he said.

    Trump said that his administration is cutting regulation at a rate “never seen before in the history of the country”. “We became great because our people, and because of our freedom. We became great because of our drive to find the next horizon, to unlock the next mystery, and to begin the next adventure,” he said.

    “That’s who we are: a nation of strivers and builders and dreamers and doers, people who treasure their independence and don’t know how to quit. Never quit. Never, ever give up — never, ever,” he said. Earlier in the day at a luncheon with bicameral tax conferees, Trump said the bill is going to cut taxes for American businesses — both big and small ones — so that they can grow, hire, and compete all around the world.

    “Right now they’re paying 35 per cent, and that’s the highest in the industrialized world — in many cases, by far. And we’ll be bringing that down to a number that will be extremely impressive to a lot of people,” he said. The plan, he said, is going to bring trillions of dollars back into the United States, money that’s offshore.

    “You’ve been hearing me say USD 2.5 trillion for years. Well, 2.5 has grown, and it’s going to be a lot more than that — probably USD 4 trillion. It could be even higher than that. It’s so much money, we don’t even know how much it is,” he said. Trump said that “great companies” like Apple, have billions of dollars overseas that they want to bring back. “Now they’re going to be able to bring it back, and we’ll be spending that money, and they’ll be spending that money right here. And it will be jobs and lots of other good things,” he said.


  • Cristiano Ronaldo wins fifth Ballon d’Or award

    Paris: Portuguese star Cristiano Ronaldo won a record-equalling fifth Ballon d’Or award for the year’s best player. The Real Madrid forward’s second successive win drew him level alongside Barcelona rival Lionel Messi on five Ballonsd’Or, after the Argentinian took second in the vote, with Brazilian Neymar third. The 32-year-old was the top-scorer in last season’sChampions League as Real successfully defended the trophy with victory over Juventus in June, and also led the Spanish giants to their first La Liga title in five years.

    “Of course I feel happy. This is something I look forward to every year,” Ronaldo said at the ceremony at the EiffelTower in Paris. “The trophies won last year helped to win this award.Thanks to my Real Madrid team-mates. And I want to thank the rest of the people who helped me reach this level.” Ronaldo, who also won the FIFA Men’s Player of the Year award in October, added the 2017 Ballon d’Or to his previous wins in 2008, 2013, 2014 and 2016.

    He scored 42 goals in all competitions for Real last season, and also netted 15 times in European World Cup qualifying. Ronaldo will lead Portugal at next year’s World Cup in Russia as he looks to add football’s greatest title to the2016 European Championship win when the Portuguese beat hosts France in the final. Messi and Ronaldo have now shared the last 10 Ballons d’Or since the latter’s first win after leading ManchesterUnited to the 2007-08 Champions League title.

    “I hope to play at this level for a few more years, I hope the battle with Messi continues, things happen for a reason,” he added. “I feel good this season and we’ll see what we win at the end of the year.” When asked if he would like to finish his career at the Santiago Bernabeu, Ronaldo said: “I’m happy at Real Madrid, I want to stay there… If possible.” Real Madrid president Florentino Perez would have been pleased to hear Ronaldo’s intention to stay, and he compared his current star to Alfredo Di Stefano, the only other player to win multiple Ballons d’Or while with Real. “For me, he’s the most complete player after Alfredo DiStefano, he’s Alfredo’s heir,” said Perez. “He embodies all the values of Real — effort, respect, teamwork, and solidarity.”

    The prestigious France Football magazine award, which was first won by Englishman Stanley Matthews in 1956, is decided upon by a journalists’ ballot, with each naming a top five from a list of 30. It was a replica first two from 2016, which was the first year after FIFA ended its association with the Ballon d’Or and restarted its own Player of the Year award. Neymar will be hoping to take over the mantle of 32-year-old Ronaldo and Messi, 30, in the coming years after coming third for the second time, having finished fifth last year.

    The 25-year-old left Messi’s Barcelona during the close season in a world-record transfer to Paris Saint-Germain, where he has already scored 15 goals this season. “Neymar has a lot of talent, a lot of potential, and I’m sure he’ll have some chance to win in the future,” Ronaldo said. Veteran Italian goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon finished fourth after helping Juventus to the Champions League final, while Real’s Croatian midfielder Luka Modric rounded out the top five.

    Centre-back Sergio Ramos was the highest-ranked Spaniard and the third Real player in the top 10, one ahead of French rising star Kylian Mbappe in seventh. Chelsea midfielder N’Golo Kante was the highest PremierLeague representative, with Bayern Munich striker Robert Lewandowski and England’s Harry Kane completing the top 10.

  • Top foreign players to feature in Pakistan Super League Players Draft

    Karachi: Around 200 foreign players will feature in a list of 500 cricketers in the Players Draft which will be held in Lahore tomorrow for the third Pakistan Super League. Top foreign players, including Chris Lynn, JP Duminy,Imran Tahir, Carlos Brathwaite, Shane Watson, Dwayne Bravo,Jimmy Neesham, Angelo Mathews, Mustafizur Rahman, Mitchell McClenaghan, Mitchell Johnson, Colin Munro, Luke Ronchi, Adil Rashid, Wayne Parnell, Thisara Perera, Rashid Khan and ColinIngram will up for grab in the Players Draft.

    The third PSL will have a new — sixth — franchise in Multan Sultans. Each franchise has a salary cap of USD 1.2million for the players draft to complete a squad of 20players. Teams have already retained nine players each for the third PSL and will go into the Players Draft to pick one platinum, one diamond, one gold, two silver and two emerging players each in order to complete their squads of 16. Teams may also pick up to four players in the supplementary rounds.

    Interestingly, only one Pakistani player, Ahmed Shehzadfeatures in the platinum category which has 21 players for the draft. A high number of players from England, Bangladesh and SriLanka will feature in the players draft. The Pakistan Cricket Board has announced that it will be holding a number of matches of the third PSL in Lahore and Karachi in March next year, including the final. Sources say that the foreign players, who sign contracts for the PSL, will have to also sign a clause confirming they will be available to play for their franchises in Pakistan.For this, they will be paid extra fees of USD 10,000 to 20,000per match if they travel to Pakistan.

  • Injury fears cloud Rafael Nadal- Roger Federer dream clash at ATP Finals

    London: Rafael Nadal and Roger Federer can set up a dream climax to the 2017 season at the ATP World Tour Finals, but organisers are sweating on the Spaniard’s fitness and a new crop are itching to spoil the party. The two all-time greats get star billing in London after each won two Grand Slams and locked down the top two ranking spots as Novak Djokovic and Andy Murray had injury-plagued seasons to forget. The eight-man field at the O2 Arena has an unbalanced look about it but 20-year-old Alexander Zverev leads a hungry chasing pack, desperate to stake a claim to membership of the game’s elite.

    World number one Nadal, who won the French Open and USOpen this year, admitted on Friday that he is not training at100 percent ahead of his tournament opener against Belgium’s David Goffin on Sunday, although he said he is likely to be fit enough to play. “I hope. And if I didn’t believe I can be ready, for me, I wouldn’t be here,” said the Spaniard, who will also do battle with Dominic Thiem and Grigor Dimitrov in the ‘Pete Sampras’ group. “I’m working every day, practising well and just trying to be ready for the action.”

    The 31-year-old, forced to pull out of the Paris Masters last week with a knee injury, is painfully aware that the ATP finals is the one major piece of silverware missing from his trophy cabinet and he wants to put that right. “Being here is an important thing but for me the most important thing is everything that happened to me this year, the tournaments, competing almost every week with a very competitive level of tennis, being healthy until Paris,” he said. And Nadal said although he welcomed the opportunity to finish the year with another high-profile clash against Federer, he was not fixated on the need to defeat the Swiss after four straight losses to his old rival in 2017.



    Federer, chasing his seventh Tour Finals title, is happy to be back at the end-of-season showpiece after missing out last year during a long layoff. “Last year I couldn’t be here so it’s nice to be here again because this year I had to start further back in the rankings,” said the Swiss, who astonished the tennis world by winning the Australian Open after months away from the sport. Federer, at the grand old age of 36, said he felt fresh after a season that had exceeded his expectations.

    ATP Tour Finals: Federer to face Zverev, Nadal drawn against Grigor Dimitrov

    “This year I ended up playing much less than I thought I would. Because of the great start to the season I didn’t have to push it that much to be honest, which was great,” he said. So can anybody smash the Federer-Nadal duopoly at the tournament featuring the season’s top players? The most likely candidate appears to be Zverev, who has rocketed up the rankings to number three after an outstanding season in which he has won five tournaments, including two Masters titles.

    “Winning two Masters series is special for any player in an era where the top events have been monopolised by the ‘BigFour’,” said the German, who is in the ‘Boris Becker’ group along with Federer, former US Open winner Marin Cilic and Jack Sock. He added that the younger generation was making a pushtowards the top of the game to challenge the existing powers. The singles tournament, which runs until November 19,begins with Thiem taking on Dimitrov. The top two in eachgroup qualify for the semi-finals.

  • ICC does not have power to pursue BCCI: Wasim Akram

    Karachi: Former Pakistan seamer Wasim Akram has reflected that International Cricket Council (ICC) is powerless in front of Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), as it cannot foster a deal between the latter and Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) for a bilateral series. “I don’t think ICC has the power to pursue BCCI, but again I have always said people to people contact is necessary. Politics and sport should be separate,” Geo News quoted Akram, as saying.

    The 51-year-old pacer also expressed, it is very unfortunate that the current players from both the sides are missing out on playing against each other. Akram said an India-Pakistan series is more exciting to watch than the Ashes series played between England and Australia.

    “A Pakistan India match is more fun to watch than the Ashes. 20 million people watch the Ashes while a Pakistan India match is watched by a billion people,” the skipper said. In 2014, BCCI and PCB signed an agreement to play six bilateral series between 2015 and 2023; however, the series have not been materialised yet in wake of political tensions between the two countries.

    The last time the two rivals clashed against each other was in the ICC Champions Trophy final in June earlier this year, where the Sarfraz Ahmed-led side conceded a 180 run defeat to the Virat-Kohli led team.

  • India vs New Zealand: Sehwag-Taylor have sign off banter as thrilling series ends

    New Zealand lost a hard-fought three-match T20I series against India after falling six runs short in the final T20I in Thiruvananthapuram on Tuesday. Their series win over the Kiwis handed Virender Sehwag the perfect chance to have one final go at his friend Ross Taylor. As soon as the Team India registered a 6-run win in the 3rd T20I, Sehwag tweeted Taylor. “Dhulaai ke baad silaai, but well played NZ.Never feel very bad losing against NZ because they are such nice guys,but sweet victory for India,” he wrote.

     Virender Sehwag ✔@virendersehwag
    Dhulaai ke baad silaai, but well played NZ.Never feel very bad losing against NZ because they are such nice guys,but sweet victory for India https://twitter.com/RossLTaylor/status/927121062239920128 …
    11:05 PM - Nov 7, 2017
     898 898 Replies   3,372 3,372 Retweets   26,218 26,218 likes
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    The duo has been trading friendly fire on the social media site throughout the series. Though the Kiwi batsman may not ended up on the winning side in the end, but he did carve out a special place in the hearts of the local fans with his Hindi. And before signing off from India, Taylor shared a post on his Instagram account with picture, including teammat Ish Sodhi and staff member Dev. The picture was captioned, “As always India it was a pleasure. FYI – the two responsible for helping me with banter with @virendersehwag are here in this photo, thanks, Dev and @ic3_odi, signing off with one last message: Dhullai aur Silaai Anne waale samay mein jaari rahegi ☺️#India #indvnz #Mumbai #darji.”

    Taylor thanked his Indian origin staff member and teammate who helped him in the Twitter banter against Viru in the past few days by replying to his messages in Hindi. Sehwag and Taylor recently indulged in some healthy arguments on Twitter, which became famous all over social media, enjoyed by the fans as well. The Twitter banter went on throughout the tour of New Zealand to India. Both ODI and T20I series was played in great spirit on and off the field as the teams fought gamely in all the six matches. The deciders went right down the wire but India prevailed every time by keeping their nerves.

    Anyway, the Nawab of Najafgarh won the ultimate battle in the end and had the last laugh.


  • Google Pixel 2 XL now available in India

    New Delhi:{agency} Google made its flagship smartphone “Pixel 2 XL” available in India on Wednesday in two variants — 64GB model for Rs 73,000 and 128GB variant for Rs 82,000. The devices will be available in two colours (Just Black, Black and White) online on Flipkart, Reliance Digital and retail stores across the country, the company said in a statement.

    Running Android Oreo, Pixel 2 XL comes with full screen, 6-inch QHD+ 18:9 display with 3D Corning Gorilla Glass 5, 4GB RAM and houses Qualcomm Snapdragon 835 octa-core processor. The device has 12MP rear camera, 8MP front camera and a 3,520mAh battery.

    The rear shooter has been upgraded with a brighter f/1.8 aperture and optical stabilisation (OIS), as well as electronic stabilisation, resulting in detailed images with crisp colour reproduction and accurate tones. The phone uses an aluminium unibody with a hybrid coating, and is IP67 water and dust resistant.
    Apart from unlocking the device in a snap, the fingerprint sensor on Pixel 2 XL can also be used to access the notification panel with a swipe down. Pixel 2 XL also includes Google Lens that uses machine learning (ML) capabilities to recognise places, objects and streets, etc, from the clicked images to give more information about them.

    Pixel 2 XL comes with Google Assistant that, in the coming weeks, will also be able to help with your daily routines.

Social Media

  • Facebook rolling out AI tools to help prevent suicides

    San Francisco: In yet another attempt to prevent suicides, Facebook is starting to roll out Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based tools to help identify when someone might be expressing thoughts of suicide, including on Facebook Live.

    The initiative – that will use pattern recognition to detect posts or live videos where someone might be expressing thoughts of suicide to help authorities respond faster — will eventually be available worldwide, except the European Union, Facebook said in a blog post on Tuesday.

    “Facebook is a place where friends and family are already connected and we are able to help connect a person in distress with people who can support them. It’s part of our ongoing effort to help build a safe community on and off Facebook,” wrote Guy Rosen, Vice President of Product Management at Facebook.
    In October, Facebook worked with first responders on over 100 wellness checks based on reports it received via its proactive detection efforts.  “We use signals like the text used in the post and comments (for example, comments like “Are you ok?” and “Can I help?” can be strong indicators).

    “In some instances, we have found that the technology has identified videos that may have gone unreported,” Rosen said.  Facebook has a team that includes a dedicated group of specialists who have specific training in suicide and self harm.  “We are also using AI to prioritise the order in which our team reviews reported posts, videos and live streams. This ensures we can get the right resources to people in distress and, where appropriate, we can more quickly alert first responders,” the blog post read.  In addition to those tools, Facebook is using automation so the team can more quickly access the appropriate first responders’ contact information.

    “We have teams working around the world, 24/7, who review reports that come in and prioritise the most serious reports. We provide people with a number of support options, such as to reach out to a friend,” Rosen informed.  Facebook in September said it was working with suicide prevention partners in India to collect phrases, hashtags and group names associated with online challenges encouraging self-harm or suicide.  Started on World Suicide Prevention Day on September 10, the initiative would also connect people in India with information about supportive groups and suicide prevention tools in News Feed.

  • Twitter rolls out 280-character limit to all users

    San Francisco, After running a successful trial with few users, Twitter has finally rolled out its new 280-character limit virtually for all users. In September, Twitter launched a test that expanded the 140-character limit so that users could express themselves easily in a tweet. “Our goal was to make this possible while ensuring we keep the speed and brevity that makes Twitter, Twitter. “Looking at all the data, we’re excited to share we’ve achieved this goal and are rolling the change out to all languages where cramming was an issue,” the micro-blogging platform said in a blog post on Wednesday.

    During the first few days of the test, many people tweeted the full 280-limit because it was new and novel but soon after, the behaviour normalised. “We saw when people needed to use more than 140 characters, they tweeted more easily and more often. But importantly, people tweeted below 140 most of the time and the brevity of Twitter remained,” said Aliza Rosen, Product Manager, Twitter.

    Only five per cent of tweets sent were longer than 140 characters and only two per cent were over 190 characters. In addition to more tweeting, people who had more room to tweet received more engagement (Likes, Retweets, @mentions), got more followers and spent more time on Twitter during the experiment.
    “Japanese, Korean and Chinese will continue to have 140 characters because cramming is not an issue in these languages. In fact, these languages have always been able to say more with their tweets because of the density of their writing systems,” the post said.

    The average length of a tweet in Japanese is 15 characters, and only 0.4 per cent of tweets hit the 140-character limit. But in English, a much higher percentage of tweets have 140 characters (nine per cent). Most Japanese tweets are 15 characters while most English tweets are 34.

    According to Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey, this is a small change, but a big move for them. “The 140 limit was an arbitrary choice based on the 160 character SMS limit. Proud of how thoughtful the team has been in solving a real problem people have when trying to tweet. And at the same time maintaining our brevity, speed, and essence!” Dorsey had tweeted during the time of trial.

    The 140-character limit has been around since 2006 and has become part of the product’s personality.

    by agency

  • Soon, taxmen will be prowling on Facebook snooping for black money, spending patterns

    New Delhi: A photo of your shiny new luxury car on Instagram or a costly watch on Facebook may lead the taxman to your doorstep as the tax department from next month will begin amassing virtual information to trace black money. ‘Project Insight’, likely to be launched next month, will use big data analytics to match information from social media sites to deduce mismatches between spending pattern and income declaration.

    The tax department will analyse mismatches in income declarations and spending patterns to trace tax evasions and black money, an official said. The government has also made linking of PAN with Aadhaar mandatory to get a 360-degree view of a person’s income and assets.

    The tax department had last year signed a pact with L&T Infotech for implementation of Project Insight, which is designed to strengthen the non-intrusive information driven approach for improving tax compliance. “Currently, beta testing is on and the integrated platform for Project Insight should be launched by next month,” the official told PTI.

    Project Insight has been initiated by the income tax department for data mining, collection, collation and processing of such information for effective risk management with a view to widen and deepen the tax base. It will help the taxmen monitor high value transactions, and curb the circulation of black money. However, some experts are wondering whether the new privacy law will impact the tax man’s snooping activities in the social media.

  • WhatsApp voice calling is here and this is how you activate

    While several online reports have claimed that the voice calling feature on WhatsApp has arrived, there is no official announcement or confirmation from the company. Several blogs suggested that users need to download the latest version of Whatsapp or get version 2.11.528/531 to activate the feature. However, this may not work. Even newer versions like 2.11.561 is yet to get the feature. So, upgrading to the latest version will clearly not work.

    Another round of online reports informed that users will only get the calling feature activated on their accounts if someone makes aWhatsApp call to them. Suggesting that an invitation is required.

    For the record the latest version of WhatsApp (as of March 14) is 2.12.7. You can download it from the website and insatll the apk file. However, you will need someone (who already has the feature) to call you to activate it on your device.

    So, if you haven’t received the calling feature even after updating to the latest version, it’s better to forget about it for the moment and wait for the official announcement. When WhatsApp announced its WhatsWeb, the feature was available across all versions. So, we can expect the same this time for voice calling.

    Meanwhile, several malwares and fake WhatsApp calling apps have appeared to take advantage of curious users.

  • Facebook rewards $10, 000 to 10-year-old for discovering flaw in Instagram

    New York: The social networking giant has paid $10,000 to a 10-year-old boy for spotting a bug in Facebook-owned photo-sharing platform Instagram.

    According to a report in technology website VentureBeat.com, Jani from Finland discovered the security flaw in Instagram on his own.

    He found a bug in Instagram which requires you to be at least 13 before even signing up, that let him delete any comment on the social network.

    “He reported the bug by email, offered proof by deleting a message on one of Facebook’s test Instagram accounts and it was fixed in February. Facebook paid him the bug bounty in March,” the report added.

    “I would have been able to remove anyone, even Justin Bieber,” the report quoted Jani as saying.

    The Finnish boy wishes to become a security researcher. “It would be my dream job. Security is very important,” he was quoted as saying.

    He used the reward money to buy a new bike, football gear and computers for his two brothers.

    Like Google and Microsoft, Facebook also has a bug bounty programme.

    In February, Facebook announced that it had paid $4.3 million in rewards to more than 800 security researchers for over 2,400 submissions since launching its bug bounty programme in 2011.