Chhattisgarh government hiked minimum selling rate of vermi compost from Rs 8 to Rs 10 per kg
Vermi compost being prepared by cow dung in thousands of women self-help groups
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel has launched Godhan Nyaya Yojana from Hareli festival in the state
On the instructions of the Chief Minister, the Commissioner of Agricultural Production issued the order
Dung is being purchased in 4487 Gothanas of the state
Till date 8000 quintal vermi compost has been produced in the state: 1000 quintal vermi compost has also been sold.
The Chhattisgarh government has increased the minimum selling rate of vermi compost produced in Gothan from Rs 8 per kg to a minimum of Rs 10 per kg. On the instructions of Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, an order to this effect has been issued by the Commissioner of Agricultural Production.
It is known that this year, the state's first-of-its-kind cow dung procurement scheme has been launched from the Hareli festival, the Godhan Nyaya Yojana, under which cow dung is being purchased from the villagers, farmers and livestock at Rs 2 per kg. So far, Rs. 59.08 crore has been paid by the Chief Minister to the online accounts of 1.36 lakh dung vendors in the Godhan Nyaya Yojana as the value of cow dung purchased from them.
Under the Suraji Village Scheme of the Government of Chhattisgarh, out of 6430 Gothans approved in the state, the work of cow dung is being done in 4487 Gothanas. So far, 44 thousand stitches have been manufactured and 16 thousand stitches are being made in Gauthano to make vermi compost from the dung purchased. So far, 8000 quintal vermi compost has been produced in the state and 1000 quintal vermi compost has been sold. Thousands of women self-help groups of the state are working to make vermicompost from cow dung in Gothan, their income will increase by increasing the minimum sale rate of vermi compost. Under this scheme, the state government also plans to set up a laboratory to check the quality of vermi compost in every district of the state.
Special Article : The vision of ‘Khelbo-Jeetbo-Gadhbo Nava Chhattisgarh’ is manifesting into reality
World class training facility and ultra modern sports facilities available in state for all-round development of the sportsperson
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel’s vision of ‘Khelbo-Jeetbo-Gadhbo Nava Chhattisgarh’ is now turning into reality. Ultramodern sports facilities are being developed at an accelerated pace for the sportspersons and sports-lovers of Chhattigsarh. With these expedited sports infrastructure development, Chhattisgarh is establishing its unique identity in the sports world. Sportsperson can now avail world class sports training in the state itself. Under the leadership of Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, State Government has made major achievement in development of sports infrastructure. As per the vision of Chief Minister and under the guidance of Sports Minister Mr. Umesh Patel, both modern and traditional sports are being promoted in the state and many effective steps are being taken to polish the talents of sportspersons.
Formation of Sports Development Authority
After formation of the new government, Sports Development Authority was constituted to promote sports and enhance sports facilities in the state. Various modern sports academies have been opened to promote sports activities in the state. These academies are being operated under Chhattisgarh Sports Development Authority. There were many underutilized sports ground and infrastructure in the state. Bhupesh Government upgraded these grounds and made them available to the sportspersons.
Foundation laying of the Tennis Sports Academy in the capital city
Recently on November 19, Chief Minister Mr. Baghel laid the foundation stone for construction of Tennis Sport Academy on 4 acres of land adjoining Agricultural University Cultural Building in Raipur. State Government's Sports and Youth Welfare Department has sanctioned Rs 17 crore 75 lakh for construction of this academy. Tennis Sport Academy campus would consist of an Admin Building, Hostel Building and a Tennis Court with capacity of 3,500 spectators.
With residential hockey academy for boys and girls in the capital Raipur and the 'Swimming, Wrestling and Athletic Excellence Center' in Nyayadhani Bilaspur, sportspersons and sports enthusiasts of the state will no longer have to go outside the state for training. With the efforts of the state government, both these institutions have recieved recognition from SAI.
Development of world-class sports infrastructure
As a result of the consistent efforts of Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, Government of India has issued administrative approval of Rs. 4 crore 50 lakh for construction of a multipurpose indoor hall in Ambikapur and Rs. 6 crore 60 lakh for construction of a synthetic athletic track in Mahasamund. State government is moving step by step to build world-class sports infrastructure in the state. The newly constructed synthetic turf hockey stadium in Bilaspur has been renamed as late BR YADAV Hockey Stadium, and the stadium has been opened for the players.
Special emphasis on sports training
Providing world class sports training facilities to the budding talent of state is the top priority of Bhupesh Baghel's government. In the same sequence, preparations are being made to recruit coaches of various sports in the state soon. Directorate of Sports and Youth Welfare has decided to take services of coaches from outside the state, if required, so as to help the sportspersons perform their level best.
State Youth Festival organized magnificently
Rajya Yuva Mahotsav (State-level Youth Festival) was successfully organized last year on the theme 'Gadhbo Nava Chhattisgarh'' in the capital city Raipur. Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel has given instructions to organize this event every year, and separate budget provision has been made for Sports and Youth Welfare Department to organize this annual event. All the participants of Yuva Mahotsav were provided incentive amount of Rs. 500 each.
Chhattisgarh entrusted with the responsibility of Archery sports under One State-One Game initiative
Under the 'One State-One Game' , Chhattisgarh has been entrusted with the responsibility of training and preparing talented archers to represent the country in archery sports category of Olympics-2024. In the same sequence, state government has made arrangements to provide archery training to youngsters with natural talent for the sport. Astroturf is being developed to promote hockey in Jashpur. Hockey stadium is being constructed at Patan-Marra. Judo Academy has been established in Durg. State government is providing better facilities in Narayanpur to encourage the sport of Malkambh.
Rajiv Yuva Mitan Clubs formed
Rajiv Yuva Mitan Clubs are being formed to promote sports activities in rural areas of the state. Sports and Youth Welfare Department is implementing Rajiv Yuva Mittan Club Scheme in as many as 11 thousand 664 gram panchayats of 146 development blocks in the state. These clubs will be given 10 thousand rupees per month for conducting various activities. Young members of the club will be engaged for promotion of various social activities such as cleanliness, plantation programs and other schemes.
Important centers of employment are being made in villages: Chief Minister Mr. Baghel
Chief Minister has more than 41 thousand cow dung vendors under Godhan Nyaya Yojana
Online payment of Rs 5.56 crore
Chief Minister appeals to give tribute to farmers
So far 1.36 lakh cow dung vendors in Godhan Nyaya Yojana
59.08 crore paid to
Chief Minister Shri Bhupesh Baghel today made online payment of Rs 5 crore 56 lakh as the 9th installment of cow dung to 41 thousand 35 cattle rearing beneficiaries from his residence office in the capital under Chhattisgarh Godhan Nyay Yojana. Till now, one lakh 36 thousand cow dung vendors have been paid an amount of Rs 59 crore 8 lakh.
Addressing the program, Chief Minister Mr. Baghel said that Godhan Nyaya Yojana is an important scheme in strengthening the economy of villages in the state. The Gothan villages built under this are proving to be important centers for employment. This is the reason that people of all classes are showing special interest towards this scheme and they are increasingly earning income by joining it. Chief Minister Mr. Baghel said that self-help groups, including committees of Gothanas, should be made more active and dynamic by connecting them to agricultural colleges and agricultural science centers. If the Gothans are self-supporting, they will not need the money from the government and they will be able to earn maximum income by conducting their activities in a timely manner.
During this period, Chief Minister Baghel has appealed to the cattle farmers to provide paraphernalia for adequate availability of fodder for cattle. He also laid special emphasis on the manufacture of sufficient quantity of vermicompost stitches in proportion to the number of dung arrivals and cattle in the Gothanas. He gave necessary instructions regarding strengthening the working committees and self-help groups in Gothan, by linking them to commercial activities according to local needs and demands and encouraging them for production.
On this occasion, Agriculture and Water Resources Minister Shri Ravindra Chaubey described the Godhan Nyaya Yojana as important for the villagers and said that the number of Gothans in the state is increasing continuously. With this, landless poor families along with cattle rearers have started benefiting. He informed that under the Godhan Nyaya Yojana started in Chhattisgarh from 20 July till last 30 November, 6 thousand 430 Gothan have been established, out of which 3 thousand 785 active Gothan are. During this period, an amount of Rs 59 crore 8 lakh has been paid to the beneficiaries in the purchase of 29 lakh 53 thousand quintal cow dung.
On this occasion, the Minister of Panchayat and Rural Development, Shri T.S. Singhdev, Public Works Minister Mr. Tamradhwaj Sahu, Forest Minister Mr. Mohammad Akbar, Cooperative Minister Dr. Premasai Singh Tekam, Urban Administration Minister Dr. Shivkumar Dahria, Women and Child Development Minister Mrs. Anila Bhendia, Revenue Minister Mr. Jaisingh Agarwal, Food Minister Mr. Amarjit Bhagat , Industries Minister Mr. Kavasi Lakhma, Public Health Engineering Minister Guru Rudrakumar, Higher Education Minister Mr. Umesh Patel, Chhattisgarh Mineral Development Corporation Chairman Mr. Girish Dewangan, State Food and Civil Supplies Corporation President Mr. Ram Gopal Agrawal, Additional Chief Secretary Mr. Subrata Sahu, Agriculture Production Commissioner Dr. M. Geeta, Secretary to the Chief Minister Mr. Siddharth Komal Pardeshi, and other officials were present.
Dial 112 in Chhattisgarh will now solve the problems of farmers too: Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel instructed to connect dial 112 with farmers for quick diagnosis of farmers' problems
Dial 112 in Chhattisgarh will now be able to solve any type of problems including selling paddy of farmers. Taking a major decision in the interest of the farmers of the state, the Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel has instructed to connect the service of Dial 112 with the farmers for quick diagnosis of the problems of the farmers. This service will be provided to the farmers till this paddy procurement season. Dial 112 services are now being provided to the people in emergency. The Chief Minister has instructed the Collector and Superintendents of Police to promptly diagnose problems received from farmers in Dial 112.
In case of registration of the farmers of the state, entry of acreage, lack of acreage, any kind of error in Girdawari, any problem in selling paddy and farmers need any kind of financial assistance, now they can give information by calling dial 112 . Their problems will be quickly diagnosed through dial 112. For this, instructions have been given to all district collectors and superintendents of police. The complaints received from the farmers in Dial 112 and the action taken on them will be reviewed every week by the Chief Secretary.
It is worth noting that under the leadership of Chief Minister Shri Bhupesh Baghel, several important steps have been taken continuously by the Government of Chhattisgarh for the protection of the interests of farmers, solutions to their problems and their welfare. Empowerment of farmers and up gradation of farming is a top priority of the state government. The rural economy has come alive in this crisis through innovative schemes such as the debt waiver of farmers, Rajiv Gandhi Kisan Nyaya Yojana, Godhan Nyaya Yojana and Suraji Village to give farmers a fair price for their produce.
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel attended the annual Raj session of Chhattisgarh Manwa Kurmi Kshatriya Samaj
Important role of the forefathers and personalities of the society in the formation of Chhattisgarh state with the fight for independence - Chief Minister Mr. Baghel
The Chief Minister of the state, Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, participated in the 75th annual Raj session of the Chhattisgarh Manwa Kurmi Kshatriya Samaj organized at village Sirri of Gundardehi development block in Balod district today. On this occasion, senior members of the society and officials welcomed the Chief Minister with a warm welcome. Addressing the annual Raj session of the Chhattisgarh Manwa Kurmi Kshatriya Samaj, the Chief Minister said that the forefathers and dignitaries of this society have not only played an important role in the freedom struggle but also in the formation of the state of Chhattisgarh. He has made his valuable contribution in notable fields like education, agriculture, cooperative as well as social reform. The Chief Minister announced the acceptance of the Community Building and Naljal Yojana at Village Sirri.
Chief Minister Mr. Baghel said that the State Government has taken many decisions for the betterment of farmers, laborers, women, children and villagers as well as citizens. Chhattisgarh farmers are getting the highest price of paddy. The Chief Minister said that paddy procurement has been going on systematically since December 1. There will be no shortage of gunny bags for paddy purchase. He said that if there is any error in the registered area of a farmer, it will be investigated and rectified. He said that Suraji village scheme has been started in the direction of improving the rural economy. Under the Godan Nyaya Yojana, cow dung is being purchased at the rate of two rupees per kilogram. Vermi compost increases the fertility of the ground. Construction of Gothan is protecting livestock and protecting crops.
Addressing the convention, Chief Minister Mr. Baghel called for a parade in the Gothanas. He said that burning the para in the field reduces the fertility of the earth. Do not burn para, donate para to Gothan. Para can make manure, this will increase crop production. The Chief Minister also released the Chhattisgarh Manwa Kurmi Kshatriya Samaj youth-maiden introduction magazine "Pushp Parinay". The convention was also addressed by Mrs. Kiranmayi Nayak, President of Chhattisgarh State Women Commission, Mr. Kunwar Singh Nishad, MLA and Parliamentary Secretary of Gundardehi Assembly constituency, Mrs. Sangeeta Sinha, MLA from Sanjari-Balod Assembly constituency, Dr. Ramkumar Sirmaur, Central President of Chhattisgarh Manwa Kurmi Samaj. did. A large number of public representatives, rural and senior officials were present on this occasion along with many senior officials of Chhattisgarh Manwa Kurmi Samaj.
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel attended a tribute meeting of senior journalist Late Shri Lalit Surjan: Humble tribute of paid
Chief Minister Shri Bhupesh Baghel today attended a tribute meeting of late Shri Lalit Surjan, a progressive thinker, writer, poet and senior journalist. He laid a wreath on the portrait of Late Shri Lalit Surjan and paid him a humble tribute. The Chief Minister said in this tribute meeting held at Mata Sanudari Sabha in Khalsa School Complex that Shri Lalit Surjan ji's death is an irreparable loss for all of us. Journalism suffered due to his demise and we lost a guardian. People from every section used to discuss serious topics with him. We would not have imagined such a social event in Raipur and they should not attend it. Who will fill this vacant place due to his departure.
Highlighting the easy-going and humble personality of Late Shri Lalit Surjan, Chief Minister Shri Baghel said that Lalit ji used to mix with people of every ideology. Even though their views were different, they used to listen to their words with a smile. The flame which was lit by late Shri Mayaram Surjan ji through Deshbandhu, was carried forward by Mr. Lalit Surjan ji very well. Many people descended from the school of Deshbandhu reached many heights. The Chief Minister said that even though Shri Lalit Surjan ji is not with us today, his thoughts and memories of moments spent with him are with us. Lalit Surjan ji was rich in versatility. He has made distinctive contributions in many fields. It will be our true tribute to him to carry forward his thoughts and actions. The Chief Minister expressed condolences to the family members of Late Shri Lalit Surjan Ji and prayed to God for the peace of his soul. A tribute was paid to the late Shri Lalit Surjan ji by keeping two minutes of silence in the tribute meeting. Mahase Rajeshree Ram Sundar Das, President of Goseva Commission, Chairman of Chhattisgarh Housing Board, Shri Kuldeep Juneja, Advisor to Chief Minister Mr. Vinod Verma, many senior journalists, litterateurs, public representatives, representatives of various organizations and enlightened citizens were present in the tribute meeting.
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel handed over 196 development works worth Rs 792 crore to Jashpur district: 94 works costing Rs 656 crore Bhoomi Pujan: 102 works costing Rs 137 crore
Construction in Jashpur district at a cost of Rs 568.80 crores
Worship of 64 roads
Inauguration of completed works of solar irrigation pumps, solar home light and solar plant installation completed at a cost of about Rs 62.68 crores.
The Chief Minister, Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, today handed over 196 different development works to the district at a cost of Rs. Of these, the Chief Minister inaugurated 94 works costing Rs 655 crore 77 lakh and 102 works costing Rs 137 crore. On this occasion, Food Minister Mr. Amarjeet Bhagat, Higher Education Minister Mr. Umesh Patel, Chairman of Central Region Tribal Development Authority Mr. Laljit Singh Rathia, Deputy Chairman of Scheduled Caste Development Authority, Mrs. North Ganpat Jangade, Chairman of Chhattisgarh Mineral Development Corporation Mr. Girish Dewangan, MLA Jashpur Mr. Vinay Bhagat, Raigarh MLA Mr. Prakash Naik, Lailunga MLA Mr. Chakradhar Sidar and many public representatives including a large number of prominent citizens were present.
The Chief Minister performed Bhoomi Pujan for 64 roads to be built at a cost of Rs 568 crore 80 lakh in Jashpur district. Out of these works, 32 roads to be constructed by the Public Works Department at a cost of Rs 359 crore 63 lakh, 28 roads to be built at a cost of Rs 205 crore 65 lakh under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana and 3 under Mukhyamantri Gram Sadak Yojana There are 4 roads constructed at a cost of Rs. 52 lakhs. Construction of bridges and culverts will also be done on many of these roads. With the completion of these works, people will be able to get better facilities in rural areas of Jashpur district. The Chief Minister also inaugurated 40 works of roads completed at a cost of Rs 38 crore 28 lakh in the program.
The Chief Minister inaugurated solar irrigation pumps, solar home light and solar plant installation works completed by CREDA in this district of Vananchal at a cost of about Rs 62 crore 68 lakh. These works include installation of 1927 solar irrigation pumps installed under the Solar Sujala scheme at a cost of Rs 47 crore 85 lakhs, 74 solar irrigation pumps installed for drinking water in Gothans and pastures at a cost of Rs 2 crore 9 lakhs, 6 crores 110 solar dual pumps installed for drinking water at a cost of Rs 29 lakhs, 1301 solar home lights installed at a cost of Rs 5 crore 30 lakhs and at Jashupar Garden and Pathalgaon Courts and Practices Court at a cost of Rs 1 crore 15 lakhs. The installation of 4 solar power plants has been included.
Mr. Baghel undertook the work of installation of 1 thousand solar irrigation pumps under the Solar Sujala scheme at a cost of Rs 28.60 crore in Jashpur district, 150 solar irrigation pumps to be installed for drinking water in Gothans and pastures at a cost of Rs 4.96 crore, 6.66 crore Under the Jeevan Jeevan Mission at a cost of Rs, 45 solar dual pumps and tank installation works were also performed.
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel reached Jashpur on a two-day stay today ..
Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel reached Jashpur on a two-day stay today. Chief Minister was given a warm welcome at Police Line Helipad Jashpur. On this occasion, the Minister in-charge of Khagh and District Mr. Amarjit Bhagat, Higher Education Minister Mr. Umesh Patel, MLA Jashpur Mr. Vinay Bhagat, Raigarh MLA Mr. Prakash Naik, Dharamjaygarh MLA Mr. Lalji Singh Rathia, Lailunga MLA Mr. Chakradhar Sidar, Commissioner Ms. Geneviva Kindo, Collector Shri Mahadev Kanvera, Superintendent of Police Shri Balaji Rao, distinguished citizens, public representatives and officials were present.
1336 crore rupees in the pocket of 38.42 lakh consumers of the state so far from half bill of electricity: Chhattisgarh government's electricity bill half plan has illuminated millions of lives
Chhattisgarh government's half-power bill scheme can see happiness on the face of millions of domestic electricity consumers in the state. Under this scheme launched by the state government under the leadership of Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, till date 38 lakh 42 thousand 50 consumers have been given domestic subsidy of 1336 crores by the Chhattisgarh government, or it can be said that the pocket of the people directly 1336 crores has been saved.
It is worth noting that in the country's electricity hub Chhattisgarh, many schemes have been operated to provide electricity to farmers and poor families at concessional rates, for the first time in half electricity bill scheme, up to 400 units of domestic electricity consumers will be half of the bill. Exempted. On the special initiative of Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, the Half Electricity Bill Scheme launched in Chhattisgarh from March 1, 2019, entitles domestic consumers to 50 percent rebate on the effective tariff on electricity consumption up to 400 units per month. The equivalent amount of this exemption is given by the state government as a grant to the power distribution company. As of September 2020, a total of 38 lakh 42 thousand 50 consumers have taken advantage of this scheme. From March 2019 till now, domestic subsidy of 1336 crores has been given to domestic consumers by Chhattisgarh government
Many such families of low and middle income groups are among the domestic electricity consumers, for whom it was very difficult in the era of inflation to get electricity bills. Convenience of electricity supply at concessional rates was like a far-fetched for this class, on the contrary, due to increase in power tariff within a few years, people of this class had to pay the increased electricity bills of their homes. In order to meet this increasing economic burden, he was forced to cut his other essential expenses.
The new government, formed in December 2018 under the leadership of Chief Minister Mr. Bhupesh Baghel, sensed the problems of this category of domestic consumers with full sensitivity and implementing the policy of 'Sabka Sath-Sabka Vikas' for all domestic electricity consumers Implemented the 'Half Electricity Bill Scheme' from 01 March 2019 and fulfilled its big promise. The 'Half Electricity Bill Scheme' is proving to be an unexpected and enjoyable change plan for millions of domestic electricity consumers in the state. Millions of domestic electricity consumers in the state had never even imagined such a plan. The scheme has provided great relief to the people of this class. The electricity bill of thousands of rupees of their houses was reduced to a few hundreds. Now, the cost incurred for these consumers in cutting their home electricity bills has been halved, now they can use the savings amount in other works.
Under the Half Electricity Bill Scheme, all the domestic consumers of the state are being given a rebate of half the bill amount on the basis of effective electricity rates on electricity consumed up to 400 units per month. Earlier consumers had to pay Rs 4.50 per unit, at present they would have to pay Rs 2.30 per unit on 400 units of electricity consumption. The benefit of this scheme is for all BPLs in the state. And other domestic category consumers. From the beginning of the half-power bill scheme till September 2020, a concession of Rs. 1336 crore 19 lakh has been given to about 38 lakh 42 thousand consumers of the state. With the implementation of this scheme, the electricity bill of the domestic electricity consumers of the state has been reduced to half, due to which the consumers of the lower and middle classes have been able to meet other requirements from the amount of savings. Due to the work done for the development of sustainable and quality power supply and power infrastructure, there has also been an increase in the number of electricity consumers and beneficiaries benefited from the Half-Electricity Bill Scheme. When the Half Electricity Bill Scheme was started in March 2019, the number of electricity consumers was 45 lakh 65 thousand. Out of these, 29 lakh 45 thousand consumers got the benefit of the Half Electricity Bill Scheme. The number of electricity consumers increased to 47 lakh 9 thousand in the month of September 2020. Out of which 38 lakh 42 thousand consumers got the benefit of Half Power Scheme.
Chhattisgarh CM writes to Union Food and Public Distribution Minister Piyush Goyal : Timely custom milling of acquired paddy: CM Bhupesh Baghel
Requests for permission to procure 26 lakh tons of rice and 14 lakh tons of arwa rice in Food Corporation of India
Raipur, December 3, 2020
Chief Minister Bhupesh Baghel has written a letter to Union Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Minister Piyush Goyal and sought his permission for procurement of 26 lakh metric tonnes of parboiled (usna) rice and 14 lakh metric tonnes of raw (arwa) rice by the Food Corporation of India under the central pool in Kharif year 2020-21, considering timely custom milling of paddy purchased from farmers on MSP in the state and proper utilisation of the state’s (usna and arwa) custom milling capacity of Chhattisgarh.
In his letter, the chief minister has written that 400 usna rice mills in the state have usna milling capacity of 5.68 lakh metric tonne per month and 1504 arwa rice mills in the state have arwa milling capacity of 18.83 lakh metric tonne per month.
Informing the minister that Food Corporation of India in kharif year 2016-17 and earlier had procured parboiled as well as raw rice, the chief minister said that the FCI should procure the surplus paddy (parboiled and raw) from the state so that paddy procured under DCP scheme can be timely processed without any damage to paddy.
He wrote that the Centre has approved the action plan to take 60 lakh metric tonnes of rice after custom milling of paddy to be procured at the support price in the Kharif marketing year 2020-21 in the state of Chhattisgarh.
Out of this, it is expected that 40 lakh metric tonne surplus rice will be procured by the FCI under central pool and remaining 20 lakh metric tonne (15 lakh metric tonne arwa under NFSA and 4.80 lakh MT arwa and 0.20 lakh MT usna under state pool) rice will be procured by the Chhattisgarh State Civil Supplies Corporation for requirement under PDS.